After Pakistan came into existence, a water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River and its two tributaries the Jhelum River & the Chenab River independently of upstream control by India.[38]. Had elaborately planned cities. The Indus River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. cities, coal fields: Rate of Natural Increase: Subtract deaths from births: Dependency Rate: The percentage of people who are too young or too old to work in a … The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants… "But we need to be concerned about that. The Indus River (called Sindhū in Sanskrit with cognates in most Indic languages)[1][2] is one of the main rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the Indian subcontinent. Practice: Ancient India. Ap Human Geography Unit 4. [42], The ethnicities of the Indus Valley (Pakistan and Northwest India) have a greater amount of ANI (or West Eurasian) admixture than other South Asians, including inputs from Western Steppe Herders, with evidence of more sustained and multi-layered migrations from the west. It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 2,000 miles (3,200 km). ", 10.1130/0016-7606(2001)113<1039:DOTIFA>2.0.CO;2, "Corona effect: Only Sindhis allowed for Sindhu Darshan Fest", "The Genetic Ancestry of Modern Indus Valley Populations from Northwest India", "Indus Delta, Pakistan: economic costs of reduction in freshwater flow", International Union for Conservation of Nature, "Pakistan's water economy: getting the balance right", "Pakistan's floodwaters welcomed along Indus delta", "River basin development phases and implications of closure", "Integrated Water Resource Systems: Theory and Policy Implications", "Technology Breakthroughs for Global Water Security: A Deep Dive into South Asia", "Global warming benefits to Tibet: Chinese official. The Indus Basin Project consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams. [61] In July 2010, following abnormally heavy monsoon rains, the Indus River rose above its banks and started flooding. Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time. Kailash) mountain ranges. [18] A later Persian name for the river was Darya,[19] which similarly has the connotations of large body of water and sea. jrdbnntt. 6 21 .9 21 .5 17.4 16.6 18.3 35.7 33.2 30.2 2006 AP Human Geography Composite Score Range -120 74 59- 73 58 45— 35 —44 0_ 34 2006 AP … Megalopolis. [13][14] From the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the name passed to the Greeks as Indós (Ἰνδός). The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. [68], In Pakistan currently there are six barrages on the Indus: Guddu barrage, Sukkur Barrage, Kotri barrage (also called Ghulam Muhammad barrage), Taunsa Barrage, Chashma Barrage and Jinnah Barrage. Huang He River Valley. ... Indus River Valley, etc. The people lost their drive to keep the cities orderly and prosperous. [34], There are two otter species in the Indus River basin: the Eurasian otter in the northeastern highland sections and the smooth-coated otter elsewhere in the river basin. Southwest Asia and Central Europe. AP Human Geography Unit 7. AP Human Geography- Unit 6, Part 2. The Indus are said to have advanced in pottery, weaving and metal work. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. The word Punjab means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, all of which finally flow into the Indus. Southern India and Eastern China. [23] Heavy rains had left the river basin along with the Lake Manchar, Lake Hemal and Kalri Lake (all in modern-day Pakistan) inundated. Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley, Indus River Valley, Huanghe and Wei River Valleys, Mesoamerica. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Pakistan, Iran border to Kutch in modern Gujarat, India. This happened two centuries after the Indus river shifted its course westwards following the 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake. This civilization was spread over an area of about 1600 kilometers from West to East and 1100 kilometers … [4] Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of India[a] towards Gilgit-Baltistan, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. Hinduism: core ideas of Brahman, Atman, Samsara and Moksha. Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayan, Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, the river supports the ecosystems of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. But, it is certain that these people were powerful, determined, and advanced; easily seen through their strong willed and successful economy. Name: _____ AP Human Geography Summer Assignment 2016-2017 A large part of being successful in AP Human Geography is having a base knowledge of the globe, important places, important physical features, and key terms. They depended on yearly floods too. The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon River is located only 28 km (17 mi) from Delhi. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein, except for the Brahmaputra. [55] Death of the Indus river dolphin has also been attributed to fishermen using poison to kill fish and scooping them up. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). [23], The traditional source of the river is the Sênggê Kanbab (a.k.a. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons – it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. The rain continued for the next two months, devastating large areas of Pakistan. The constant flooding simply broke them of their morale as a proud people of such an advanced civilization. Indus River Valley civilizations. [citation needed], Southworth suggests that the name Sindhu is derived from Cintu, a Dravidian word for date palm, a tree commonly found in Sindh. [62] In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. [59][60], Frequently, Indus river is prone to moderate to severe flooding. The Indus Valley Civilisation extended from across northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India,[25] with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River to Ropar on the upper Sutlej. Irrigated agriculture provided an economic base and a written language. Key Vocabulary & Thematic Questions for Discussion Chapter 1 – From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River Valley Civilizations Vocabulary: As you complete your textbook reading in chapter 1, define these key terms, people, and places to assist in your understanding of the content. (river valley article) The River valley was at its peak and it was richest between 2600 and 1900 B.C. If it is true that the Aryans invaded the Indus Valley at the time when the civilization was withering, it was no wonder that they had no trouble forcing the people of Indus out of the area. [citation needed] As a result, the 2010 Pakistan floods were considered "good news" for the ecosystem and population of the river delta as they brought much needed fresh water. 3,180 km (1,980 mi) as Mapped. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges of Tibet, the Indian states and union territories of Ladakh and Himachal Pradesh and the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. Damming has also isolated the delta population of Indus river dolphins from those further upstream. Five Hearths of UrbanizationFive Hearths of Urbanization • Mesopotamia, 3500 BCE • Nile River Valley, 3200 BCE • Indus River Valley, 2200 BCE • Huang He and Wei River Valleys, 1500 BCE • Mesoamerica, 200 BCE ... AP Human Geography: Unit 7 - Urban Geography and Development Daniel Eiland. Learn more about the Mauryan empire in this article. Southwest Asia and Northern Africa. [33] Fish also played a major role in earlier cultures of the region, including the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation where depictions of fish were frequent. Farmers lived together in villages. [40][41] Sindhu Darshan Festival is held on every Guru Purnima on the banks of Indus. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times – it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake. Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. For the Bronze Age civilisation, see, "Indus" and "Sindhu" redirect here. The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river. The Shyok, Shigar and Gilgit rivers carry glacial waters into the main river. The flooding followed the previous year's floods, which devastated a large part of the country. Indus Valley cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro began as riverside farming villages about 5,000 years ago. Culture complex combines cultural traits (attributes of culture). Indus River Valley civilizations. Here, the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Over several centuries Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur crossed the river to invade Sindh and Punjab, providing a gateway to the Indian subcontinent. One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. The Indus Valley were later dominated by the Mauryan and Kushan Empires, Indo-Greek Kingdoms, Indo-Scythians and Hepthalites. But the civilization started to fall apart between 1900 and 1700 B.C. [39] The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal – linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers – extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Floods wiped out the irrigation system that supplied water to the crops, and many of the buildings were smothered. It is home to around 25 amphibian species. Culture complex combines cultural traits (attributes of culture). NicoLeis. Palla fish (Tenualosa ilisha) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. Irrigation itself is increasing soil salinization, reducing crop yields and in some cases rendering farmland useless for cultivation.[52]. [71] In response to the levees construction, the river has been aggrading rapidly over the last 20 years leading to breaches upstream of barrages and inundation of large areas.[72]. Chronologically, the third of the six urbanization hearths. Indus River, great trans-Himalayan river of South Asia. The earliest chronicles and hymns of the Aryan peoples of ancient India, the Rigveda, composed about 1500 BCE, mention the river… The river is especially critical since rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). [58], The Indus is second among a group of ten rivers responsible for about 90% of all the plastic that reaches the oceans. a place in which a religion originates (river hearths: Yellow River, Indus Valley, Tigris Euphrates, Nile Valley) Secularism the idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife (ex: communist countries removing religious traditions) ... AP Human Geography ALL TERMS. ", U.S. diplomat Richard Holbrooke said, shortly before his death in 2010, that he believed that falling water levels in the Indus River "could very well precipitate World War III. [51], Large-scale diversion of the river's water for irrigation has raised far-reaching issues. At least 1.7 million acres (690,000 ha; 2,700 sq mi) of arable land were inundated. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to those regions immediately along the east bank of the Indus, but by 300 BC, Greek writers including Herodotus and Megasthenes were applying the term to the entire subcontinent that extends much farther eastward.[27][28]. [43], Originally, the delta used to receive almost all of the water from the Indus river, which has an annual flow of approximately 180 billion cubic metres (240 billion cubic yards), and is accompanied by 400 million tonnes (390 million long tons) of silt. During his reign, the Greek explorer Scylax of Caryanda was commissioned to explore the course of the Indus. Indus river is sacred to Hindus. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. caste system. "Indus Valley" redirects here. Chronologically, the fourth of the six urbanization hearths. The Indus Valley Civilization was not confined to these two sites in the north-western area of the subcontinent. [29] It consists of around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Downriver from around Thakot, Tarbela, the Kabul–Indus river confluence, Attock Khurd and Peshawar the diversity rises strongly, including many cyprinids (Amblypharyngodon, Aspidoparia, Barilius, Chela, Cirrhinus, Crossocheilus, Cyprinion, Danio, Devario, Esomus, Garra, Labeo, Naziritor, Osteobrama, Pethia, Puntius, Rasbora, Salmophasia, Securicula and Systomus), true loaches (Botia and Lepidocephalus), stone loaches (Acanthocobitis and Nemacheilus), ailiid catfish (Clupisoma), bagridae catfish (Batasio, Mystus, Rita and Sperata), airsac catfish (Heteropneustes), schilbid catfish (Eutropiichthys), silurid catfish (Ompok and Wallago), sisorid catfish (Bagarius, Gagata, Glyptothorax and Sisor), gouramis (Trichogaster), nandid leaffish (Nandus), snakeheads (Channa), spiny eel (Macrognathus and Mastacembelus), knifefish (Notopterus), glassfish (Chanda and Parambassis), clupeids (Gudusia), needlefish (Xenentodon) and gobies (Glossogobius), as well as a few introduced species. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander, but after his Macedonians conquered the west bank—joining it to the Hellenic world, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign. [15] It was adopted by the Romans as Indus. There are several other tributaries nearby, which may possibly form a longer stream than Sênggê Kanbab, but unlike the Sênggê Kanbab, are all dependent on snowmelt. APHG - FRQ #1. Only 40 Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. Biologyiscool TEACHER. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 – the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. AP Human Geography- … Next lesson. The Indus River (called Sindhū in Sanskrit with cognates in most Indic languages) is one of the main rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the Indian subcontinent. all videos study guides slides. [44] Since the 1940s, dams, barrages and irrigation works have been constructed on the river Indus. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. hamilton98lj. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Indus River Valley. The Indus River valley civilization started about 2500 B.C.E, the largest city was Mohanjo-Daro. Study free AP Human Geography flashcards and improve your grades. 51 ], Frequently, Indus water flows indus river valley definition ap human geography to the river is especially since! In Sindh, the third of the most threatened cetaceans with only about 1,000 still existing the British supervised construction! Km ) declines the Indus basin becomes overall quite slow-flowing as it passes through the Punjab plains at Kalabagh Pakistan! The 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake the world extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus Valley include,! 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